Grape processing must be carried out following all the steps, with care and abundance, from the cultivation in the vineyards to the processing stage in the cellars. To work optimally the grapes it is necessary to know the characteristics of the soil and act accordingly to the various climatic and environmental changes, because each season is different and each vintage produces different wines.
Of fundamental importance is the choice of the most appropriate time to make the harvest, in order to avoid nullifying all the work done previously. At the end of the processing of the grapes in the vineyard we pass to that in the cellars where the pressing is carried out to create the must. The last phase of work is that in which, finally, the must is fermented and matured so that it can turn into wine.
The different types of grapes
The grape differs first of all according to the ultimate purpose of its use which can be table or wine. The distinctive element between the two types of grapes is the concentration of sugar in the fruit that is present in greater measure in the table than in the wine.
The wine grapes must be more incisive from the point of view of the perfume rather than the taste and in addition, to make a good wine, the acidity content of the berries is fundamental.
The varieties of wine grapes depend essentially on the characteristics of the territory in which it is grown. It can be red or white making different wines like Dolcetto, Barbera, Chardonnay or Moscato. In addition to the red and white types, which are very numerous, there are many other hybrids.
Grape processing in the vineyard
If you want to get a good wine, it is essential that you take care of all aspects of plant cultivation. A vineyard can have a very long life, reaching up to thirty years. It is therefore important that wooden structures are built that support your vines and are robust and firmly in the ground. A very important step is pruning, which must be done in winter.
Once you have pruned your plants, you will have to tie the branches on the wires of the wooden structure. To improve the productivity and quality of your vineyard, you will need to flip through the vines in order to provide more light to the grapes. You will therefore have to thin them out and finally proceed with the collection. At this point you can transport the grapes to the cellars.
Processing in the cellar
Grape processing in the cellar is a very delicate phase whose success depends very much on the work that was carried out in the vineyard previously. Nevertheless it is also important the vinification in the cellars that consists first of all in crushing the grapes to create the must, which is nothing other than grape juice. At this point there is fermentation or the period in which fructose turns into ethyl alcohol through the saccharomyces of grape skins, at a temperature between 15 and 25 degrees.
After two months the must must be poured into the barrels in which the wine will undergo the stage of maturation. The last step of vinification consists in refining in special containers, in steel or wood, until complete maturation, after which the wine is filtered and bottled.